Archived Webcast Available!
Campbell Collaboration (C2) Seeks Peer Reviewers
Dr. Carlton Fong of the Campbell Collaboration (C2) discussed the need for peer reviewers in C2's systematic review process. He also described how NIDILRR grantees and other researchers can apply to serve as peer reviewers in their content areas for Campbell's Disability Subgroup, as well as other review areas.
More information: www.ktdrr.org/training/webcasts/webcast32/index.html
What Works Global Summit
KTDRR will be represented at the What Works Global Summit: Putting Evidence to Work (London, Sept. 26-28, 2016). The WWGS will share experience from around the world and across sectors on measuring policy impact, experiences in the use of evidence, promoting policy uptake, knowledge translation, and critical appraisal of evidence, as well as discussions of new evidence and study methods.
SAVE THE DATE!
2016 Online KT Conference: Oct. 24-26-28, 2016
The Center on KTDRR sponsors an annual Online KT Conference for NIDILRR-funded grantees and others, by invitation. This conference is designed to address strategies in the planning and implementation of effective and efficient KT approaches. The 4th Online Conference will take place on October 24, 26, and 28, 2016. Check back to the 2016 Conference Home Page for themes, speakers, and registration information.
Listing of Recent Systematic Reviews in Disability and Rehabilitation
Bañas, B. B., & Gorgon, E. J. (2014). Clinimetric properties of sitting balance measures for children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 34(3), 313-334. doi:10.3109/01942638.2014.881952
Reviews nine articles with information on seven clinical measures, of which four (PRT, SACND, SATCo, TCMS) demonstrate acceptable overall applicability and are recommended for use in practice.
Bonnechere, B., Jansen, B., Omelina, L., Degelaen, M., Wermenbol, V., Rooze, M., & Van Sint Jan, S. (2014). Can serious games be incorporated with conventional treatment of children with cerebral palsy? A review. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 35(8), 1899-1913. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2014.04.016
Claims that it is difficult to compare the results of 31 studies using “serious games” (SG, or virtual reality) that were found, with more traditional interventions for CP children. This is said to be due to the lack of standardization in CP patient rehabilitation strategy, the use of various clinical scales and scores and non-standardization in patient follow-up. Proposes standardization strategies.
Chen, Y. P., Pope, S., Tyler, D., & Warren, G. L. (2014). Effectiveness of constraint-induced movement therapy on upper-extremity function in children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clinical Rehabilitation, 28(10), 939-953. doi:10.1177/0269215514544982
Meta-analyzes 27 studies that compared constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) with another intervention, with a focus on arm function in children with cerebral palsy. Concludes that the literature supports CIMT as an effective intervention to improve arm function.
Craig, J. (2014). Music therapy to reduce agitation in dementia. Nursing Times, 110(32-33), 12-15.
Found eight studies showing that music therapy increases emotional well-being in persons with all stages of dementia. The best results appear to be produced when familiar music is played, two-three times a week for 30-50 minutes.
Frost, J., Garside, R., Cooper, C., & Britten, N. (2014). A qualitative synthesis of diabetes self-management strategies for long term medical outcomes and quality of life in the UK. BMC Health Services Research, 14, 348-6963-14-348. doi:10.1186/1472-6963-14-348
Synthesizes the findings of four qualitative studies, conducted in the UK, of self-management strategies of patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Concludes that for self-management strategies to be sustainable in the long term, patients need to have a sense of having a stake in their self-management, timely information and support, and an overall sense of empowerment.
Hall, A. M., Kamper, S. J., Hernon, M., Hughes, K., Kelly, G., Lonsdale, C., … Ostelo, R. (2015). Measurement tools for adherence to non-pharmacologic self-management treatment for chronic musculoskeletal conditions: a systematic review. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 96(3), 552-562. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2014.07.405
Reviews “self-invented” (unnamed, unreferenced) measures of adherence to self-management used in studies of musculoskeletal samples. Diaries (n=31), multi-item questionnaires (n=11) and single-item scales (n=7) are not well supported in terms of clinimetric data, and the authors suggest that the construct of self-management adherence itself is ill-defined.
Hansen, D., Marinus, N., Remans, M., Courtois, I., Cools, F., Calsius, J., … Takken, T. (2014). Exercise tolerance in obese vs. lean adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obesity Reviews : An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, 15(11), 894-904. doi:10.1111/obr.12202
Reviews nine studies that evaluated the exercise tolerance (cardiopulmonary responses to maximal exercise testing) of obese and lean adolescents. Found that there was little difference, except for a reduced VO2 peak in obese children.
Kutlubaev, M. A., & Hackett, M. L. (2014). Part II: predictors of depression after stroke and impact of depression on stroke outcome: an updated systematic review of observational studies. International Journal of Stroke, 9(8), 1026-1036. doi:10.1111/ijs.12356
Updates and expands a 2005 systematic review on factors associated with development of depression in people with stroke. Finds that post-stroke depression is associated with prestroke depression, more severe neurological deficit and physical disability in the acute phase and later after stroke. There was no consistent relationship between depression and demographic parameters or stroke features.
Liebherz, S., & Rabung, S. (2014). Do patients' symptoms and interpersonal problems improve in psychotherapeutic hospital treatment in Germany? A systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS One, 9(8), e105329. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105329
Reviews randomized controlled trials as well as longitudinal uncontrolled studies on the effect of psychotherapy on patients hospitalized with “higher-severity” common mental problems. Finds medium within-group effect sizes at discharge and follow-up for symptom change, and small to medium effects for interpersonal problems changes.
Maïano C., Normand, C. L., Aimé, A., Bégarie, J. (2014). Lifestyle interventions targeting changes in body weight and composition among youth with an intellectual disability: A systematic review. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 35(8), 1914-1926. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2014.04.014
Reviews nine studies investigating changes in body weight and composition, healthy lifestyle, and secondary health conditions among young people with an intellectual disability. Concludes that these studies suggest success in changing weight, body mass index and fat mass, but that intervention effects on healthy lifestyle and secondary health conditions are scarce and inconclusive.
Murray, E., McCabe, P., & Ballard, K. J. (2014). A systematic review of treatment outcomes for children with childhood apraxia of speech. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology / American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 23(3), 486-504. doi:10.1044/2014_AJSLP-13-0035
Notes that of the 13 approaches used in the 23 single subject design articles, treatments were primarily for speech motor skills (n = 6), linguistic skills (n = 5), and augmentative and alternative communication (n = 2). Most participants responded positively to treatment, but for only seven of 13 maintenance and/or generalization of treatment effects were reported.
Noonan, V. K., Wolfe, D. L., Thorogood, N. P., Park, S. E., Hsieh, J. T., Eng, J. J., & SCIRE Research Team. (2014). Knowledge translation and implementation in spinal cord injury: a systematic review. Spinal Cord, 52(8), 578-587. doi:10.1038/sc.2014.62
Reviews ten studies evaluating knowledge translation (KT) interventions such as developing and implementing patient care protocols, providing clinician education and incorporating outcome measures into clinical practice, Concludes that the field of KT in spinal cord injury is in its infancy, with few relevant publications, mostly of poor quality. Notes, however, that there is some evidence that KT interventions may change clinician behavior and improve patient outcomes.
O'Grady, M. G., & Dusing, S. C. (2015). Reliability and validity of play-based assessments of motor and cognitive skills for infants and young children: a systematic review. Physical Therapy, 95(1), 25-38. doi:10.2522/ptj.20140111
Evaluates the clinimetric information available for four play-based assessments for children from 0 to 36 months of age. Finds that they have potential, more so for assessing the child's motor development than for evaluating cognitive development.
Panagioti, M., Richardson, G., Small, N., Murray, E., Rogers, A., Kennedy, A., … Bower, P. (2014). Self-management support interventions to reduce health care utilisation without compromising outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Health Services Research, 14, 356-6963-14-356. doi:10.1186/1472-6963-14-356
Investigates which models of self-management for patients with long-term conditions are associated with reductions in health services utilization, without reducing level of outcomes. Finds that in a few instances among 184 studies health outcomes were compromised, but in a few other cases they were improved. Reduction in utilization differed by condition.
Pfortmueller, C. A., Lindner, G., & Exadaktylos, A. K. (2014). Reducing fall risk in the elderly: risk factors and fall prevention, a systematic review. Minerva Medica, 105(4), 275-281. doi:R10Y9999N00A140012 [pii]
Reviews risk factors for falling in the elderly (sarcopenia/frailty, polypharmacy, multimorbidity, vitamin D status and home hazards) as well as fall prevention approaches targeting a single fall risk factor or multiple risk factors. Stresses that for prevention to be effective, a match between risk factor(s) and intervention needs to be achieved.
Pilutti, L. A., Platta, M. E., Motl, R. W., & Latimer-Cheung, A. E. (2014). The safety of exercise training in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 343(1-2), 3-7. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2014.05.016
Notes that there are many reviews documenting the benefits of exercise for people with MS, but none of the risks. Finds that across 26 studies comparing exercise and control, exercise was not associated with an increased risk of disease relapse, and the risk of adverse events was estimated not to be higher than in healthy populations.
Prince, S. A., Saunders, T. J., Gresty, K., & Reid, R. D. (2014). A comparison of the effectiveness of physical activity and sedentary behaviour interventions in reducing sedentary time in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials. Obesity Reviews, 15(11), 905-919. doi:10.1111/obr.12215
Synthesizes, qualitatively and quantitatively, the findings of controlled studies aiming to change sedentary behavior (SB) and/or physical activity (PA). Finds inconsistent and generally moderate changes in PA, but consistent evidence that large reductions in SB can be achieved using interventions with a focus on reducing SB.
Ramond-Roquin, A., Bouton, C., Gobin-Tempereau, A. S., Airagnes, G., Richard, I., Roquelaure, Y., & Huez, J. F. (2014). Interventions focusing on psychosocial risk factors for patients with non-chronic low back pain in primary care--a systematic review. Family Practice, 31(4), 379-388. doi:10.1093/fampra/cmu008
Summarizes the effectiveness of interventions focusing on psychosocial risk factors for patients with non-chronic low back pain (LBP) in primary care, because these factors are important for the transition from acute to chronic LBP. The authors conclude that among the range of psychosocial risk factors, research has focused mainly on pain beliefs and coping skills, with disappointing results. They claim that “extended theoretical models integrating several psychosocial factors and multicomponent interventions are probably required to meet the challenge of LBP”.
Thiebaud, R. S., Funk, M. D., & Abe, T. (2014). Home-based resistance training for older adults: a systematic review. Geriatrics & Gerontology International, 14(4), 750-757. doi:10.1111/ggi.12326
Systematically reviews the effectiveness of home-based resistance exercise on strength and functional ability of older adults. Concludes that this exercise can improve strength as well as functional ability, but that the improvements are generally small, possibly due to insufficient progression in intensity, as a result of insufficient supervision and/or a lack of motivation.
Listing of Recent Papers on Methodology of
Systematic Reviewing and Meta-Analysis
Brangan, J., Quinn, S., & Spirtos, M. (2015). Impact of an evidence-based practice course on occupational therapist's confidence levels and goals. Occupational Therapy in Health Care, 29(1), 27-38. doi:10.3109/07380577.2014.968943
Evaluates the changes on the “Evidence Based Practice Confidence Scale” for 136 OTs, and finds a significant improvement after an EBP training course. Analyses the therapists' goals to integrate EBP into their practice. As is the Case for most such studies, does not investigate whether actual practice changes occurred.
Collins, G. S., Reitsma, J. B., Altman, D. G., & Moons, K. G. (2015). Transparent Reporting of a multivariable prediction model for Individual Prognosis or Diagnosis (TRIPOD): the TRIPOD statement. Diabetic Medicine: A Journal of the British Diabetic Association, 32(2), 146-154. doi:10.1111/dme.12654
Presents a set of recommendations for reporting a prediction model, either diagnostic or prognostic. The TRIPOD checklist contains 22 items deemed essential by the participating experts in reporting prediction model studies.
Galipeau, J., Moher, D., Campbell, C., Hendry, P., Cameron, D. W., Palepu, A., & Hebert, P. C. (2015). A systematic review highlights a knowledge gap regarding the effectiveness of health-related training programs in journalology. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 68(3), 257-265. doi:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2014.09.024
Investigates whether training programs make for better scholarly authorship, peer review or editorship. Finds 17 studies (12 writing; 5 peer reviewing; 0 editing) that are generally small and inconclusive, of questionable validity and due to their risk of bias susceptible to misinterpretation.
Gebel, K., Ding, D., Foster, C., Bauman, A. E., & Sallis, J. F. (2015). Improving current practice in reviews of the built environment and physical activity. Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 45(3), 297-302. doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0273-8
Reviews published systematic reviews of studies of the link between nature of the built environment and physical activity. Comments that these reviews are generally done poorly, and do not follow the QUOROM or PRISMA statements.
Griffith, L. E., van den Heuvel, E., Fortier, I., Sohel, N., Hofer, S. M., Payette, H., … Raina, P. (2015). Statistical approaches to harmonize data on cognitive measures in systematic reviews are rarely reported. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 68(2), 154-162. doi:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2014.09.003
Analyzes 33 meta-analyses combining cognition outcomes, and evaluates how they deal with harmonization, i.e. achieving comparability of previously collected data reported in summary form. Finds that none of these studies reported their harmonization steps. Additionally, reports on three statistical harmonization methods described in (other) literature: (1) standardization methods, (2) latent variable models, and (3) multiple imputation models, and notes that these have not been well compared.
Koroshetz, W. (2015). A core set of trial outcomes for every medical discipline? BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), 350, h85. doi:10.1136/bmj.h85
Comments on the conclusion in a report in the same issue (Ioannidis, J. P. A., Horbar, J. D., Ovelman, C. M., Brosseau, Y., Thorlund, K., Buus-Frank, M. E., et al. Completeness of main outcomes across randomized trials in entire discipline: survey of chronic lung disease outcomes in preterm infants. BMJ 2015;350:h72.) that the majority of trials included in 174 systematic reviews of interventions on preterm infants are missing information on one of the most common serious outcomes in this population, chronic lung disease. Discusses advantages and feasibility of the suggestion made there, that consideration should be given to the development of standardized clinical outcomes that would have to be collected and reported, by default, in all trials in a given specialty area.
Li, T., Vedula, S. S., Hadar, N., Parkin, C., Lau, J., & Dickersin, K. (2015). Innovations in data collection, management, and archiving for systematic reviews. Annals of Internal Medicine, 162(4), 287-294. doi:10.7326/M14-1603
Provides a step-by-step tutorial for selecting data collection tools; constructing data collection forms; and abstracting, managing, and archiving data for systematic reviews. Argues that if it is done well, data collection for systematic reviews only needs to be done by 1 team and data extractions can be placed into a publicly accessible database for future public use.
Papageorgiou, S. N., Tsiranidou, E., Antonoglou, G. N., Deschner, J., & Jager, A. (2015). Choice of effect measure for meta-analyses of dichotomous outcomes influenced the identified heterogeneity and direction of small-study effects. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 68(5), 534-541. doi:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2015.01.004
By means of reanalysis of data in 235 meta-analyses, compares the impact on results of using the odds ratio (OR), risk ratio (RR), and risk difference (RD), respectively, in meta-analyses of dichotomous outcomes, in terms of finding (1) statistical significance, (2) heterogeneity, and (3) publication bias. Finds that conclusions in terms of significance rarely changed. Notes that use of OR resulted in the lowest I2 values (RR and RD), the Egger's test for publication bias was most often significant with RR, and that substitution of RR for OR led to a change of the observed effects in 3%, change of between-study heterogeneity in 6% to 24%, and change in Egger's test results in 7% of the cases. Concludes that the choice of metric for meta-analyses of dichotomous outcomes might influence the identified between-study heterogeneity and conclusions on publication bias.
Rethlefsen, M. L., Farrell, A. M., Osterhaus Trzasko, L. C., & Brigham, T. J. (2015). Librarian co-authors correlated with higher quality reported search strategies in general internal medicine systematic reviews. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 68(6), 617-626.
Finds, based on the application of two sets of standards (Recommended Standards for the Search Process and Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies) to systematic reviews published in high-impact general internal medicine journals, that systematic reviews co-authored by librarians or information specialists have higher search reproducibility and satisfy more of the standards. Suggests, not surprisingly, that librarians or information specialists should be part of the systematic review team.
Santesso, N., Rader, T., Nilsen, E. S., Glenton, C., Rosenbaum, S., Ciapponi, A., … Schunemann, H. J. (2015). A summary to communicate evidence from systematic reviews to the public improved understanding and accessibility of information: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 68(2), 182-190. doi:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2014.04.009
Evaluates a new plain language summary (PLS) format against the current Cochrane format. Finds that people in 5 countries understand the benefits and harms and the quality of the evidence better, independent of their education level.
Shamseer, L., Moher, D., Clarke, M., Ghersi, D., Liberati, A., Petticrew, M., … PRISMA-P Group. (2015). Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015: elaboration and explanation. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), 349, g7647. doi:10.1136/bmj.g7647
Presents the PRISMA-P, a modification of the PRISMA statement developed by a group of experts to improve the reporting of protocols for systematic reviews and meta-analyses.
Smith, V., Clarke, M., Williamson, P., & Gargon, E. (2015). Survey of new 2007 and 2011 Cochrane reviews found 37% of prespecified outcomes not reported. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 68(3), 237-245. doi:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2014.09.022
Reviews 702 Cochrane reviews published in 2007-11, and finds that 37% of outcomes prespecified in their methods sections were not reported. Argues for the development of Core Outcome Sets for use in systematic reviews.
Vale, C. L., Rydzewska, L. H., Rovers, M. M., Emberson, J. R., Gueyffier, F., Stewart, L. A., & Cochrane IPD Meta-analysis Methods Group. (2015). Uptake of systematic reviews and meta-analyses based on individual participant data in clinical practice guidelines: descriptive study. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), 350, h1088. doi:10.1136/bmj.h1088
Concludes, based on review of 33 individual participant data (IPD) meta-analyses and 177 matched clinical guidelines, that systematic reviews and meta-analyses based on IPD are being under-utilized.
Zhou, X., Wang, Y., Tsafnat, G., Coiera, E., Bourgeois, F. T., & Dunn, A. G. (2015). Citations alone were enough to predict favorable conclusions in reviews of neuraminidase inhibitors. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 68(1), 87-93. doi:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2014.09.014
Claims, based on an analysis of 152 reviews of neuraminidase inhibitors and 4,574 articles they cite, that whether a review draws conclusions favorable to these inhibitors can be predicted based just on the articles cited. Concludes that these results highlight how evidence exclusion shapes conclusions in reviews.