Managing References

There are many software programs for managing references. See for example, Comparison of Reference Management Software. Each has strengths and limitations. Some are web-based and others must be installed. Prices vary from free and open source to at-cost and commercial. We list only a few of the most commonly used below.

Articles about Managing References

  1. Lorenzetti, D. L., & Ghali, W. A. (2013). Reference management software for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: an exploration of usage and usability. BMC Med Res Methodol, 13(41). doi:10.1186/1471-2288-13-141.

Common Tools for Managing References

  1. EndNote: Widely used and supported software for managing references developed by Thomson-Reuters. Available in Windows or Mac operating systems for around $250.
  2. Biblioscape: Windows-based software developed by CG Information. Available from around $140. Integrates with Word and allows multi-user access.
  3. Mendeley: Available on desktop (Mac, Windows, Linux), web, or iPad platforms. Supports reference management, annotation, collaboration, and online backup. Available free of charge.
  4. Zotero: Operate as an extension to the Firefox web browser. It is available for Mac, Windows, and Linux. Supports reference management, tagging, citation, synchronization across devices, and collaboration.
  5. RefWorks: A web-based reference management system. An annual license is $100.
  6. Flow: Web-based reference management from ProQuest. Free for personal accounts up to 2 GB.


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