||Kozma, A., Mansell, J., & Beadle-Brown, J. (2009). Outcomes in Different Residential Settings for People With Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 114(3), 193-222. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/1944-7558-114.3.193
||COMMUNITY LIVING, DEINSTITUTIONALIZATION, DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES, INTERNATIONAL REHABILITATION, LITERATURE REVIEWS, MENTAL RETARDATION, OUTCOMES, RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, RESIDENTIAL LIVING.
This review surveyed the impact of deinstitutionalization and community living on adults with intellectual disability. Inclusion criteria for the review required studies to have been conducted between 1997 and 2007 and to have compared user outcomes for at least two residential arrangements for adults with intellectual or developmental disability. Sixty-eight studies met inclusion criteria. Studies were evaluated using 10 criteria: community presence and participation, social networks and friendship, family contact, self-determination and choice, quality of life, adaptive behavior, challenging behavior, use of psychotropic medication, health and mortality, and user and family views and satisfaction. This review sustains previous reviews’ conclusions that small-scale arrangements are in general superior to large, congregate options. However, the review also identified challenging behavior and use of psychotropic medication as areas where community based services do not provide better outcomes. Further, the benefits of community living on mortality were inconclusive.