Description for Figure 5

This figure shows the diagram of the Stetler's Model of Research Utilization. The diagram illustrates five phases of the model forming five columns from left to right in the following order:

Phase I: Preparation
Phase II: Validation
Phase III: Comparative evaluation/decision making
Phase IV: Translation/Application
Phase V: Evaluation

Each phase (column) contains graphic displays of its components. All components from all phases are connected to form the overall graphic displays.

Under Phase I: Preparation, 4 components are graphically displayed in a pyramid-like hierarchy starting from the base to the top in the following order: Define purpose & outcomes for issues/catalysts; Affirm priority; Consider influential factors;  and Search, sort, and select sources of research evidence. These components represent what a practitioner does step-by-step in the preparation phase of research utilization.

Under Phase II: Validation, there is a component of Perform utilization-focused critique and synopsis to identify and, if applicable, record key study details and qualifiers. This component is the next step from the last component of the previous phase-- Search, sort and, select sources of research evidence. After completing this step, the practitioner will either accept or reject the evidence. If the evidence is rejected, no further action is needed. If the evidence is accepted, the findings must be synthesized and evaluate based on set criteria. The acceptance of the evidence then leads to the components of Phase III: Comparative evaluation/decision making.

Phase III included 4 components, each depicted within a quarter of the same circle representing components that should be examined as a group to determine whether the evidence should be used for practice. Those 4 components are Fit of setting, Feasibility, Substantiating evidence, and Current practice. The detailed description of each component is provided in text. After this step, the decision is made to a) not use, b) use now, or c) consider use of research evidence for practice. The decision to use now or consider use leads to the next set of components under Phase IV.

Under Phase IV: Translation/Application, there are two types of decision. The first is the decision to use the research evidence now and the second is the decision to consider use of the evidence as described previously in Phase III. For the ‘use now’ decision, the practitioner will first confirm type, level, and method of application of the evidence, and then make a decision to either use the evidence formally or informally. For the ‘consider use’ decision, the practitioner will either informally or formally consider the use. If the use is considered informally, the practitioner will obtain information about targeted practice to continue their evaluation. If the use is consider formally, then a pilot test (of using the evidence for practice) should be conducted. From these formal and informal evaluations, the decision is made to either accept the use of research evidence with or without modification, or to reject the use of the evidence for practice. If the use of evidence is rejected, the process ends here.

Under Phase V: Evaluation, there are two types of evaluations that the practitioner can implement depending on the decision they make in Phase IV. If the practitioner decides to use research evidence formally, he/she will evaluate the use of evidence dynamically by incorporating the following steps: identify goal for each use; obtain evidence regarding change process and goal-related progress, as well as end results/outcomes; and use iterative evidence to achieve goal. After the research evidence is evaluated formally and integrated into practice, the use of such evidence is eventually evaluated as part of routine practice. If the practitioner decides to use the research evidence informally, then its use will be evaluated as part of routine practice immediately without going through a formal evaluation process.


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