Other Terms Related to Assessing Quality of Systematic Reviews

The list below contains definitions for terms related to assessing quality of systematic review that are not used in the AQASR. Click here to return to the glossary of terms related to assessing quality of systematic review that are used in the AQASR.

Allocative efficiencyEfficiency is a term used to indicate optimal use of resources. Allocative efficiency measures the extent to which programs improve overall social welfare. Compare with technical efficiency.
ClinimetricsAn approach to developing clinical outcome measures, proposed by Feinstein and used by clinical medical researchers. In a number of key aspects, clinimetrics deviates from classical test theory and item response theory.
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR)The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) is a comprehensive database for systematic reviews in health care research. The CDSR includes Cochrane Reviews, protocols for Cochrane Reviews, as well as editorials and supplements. About: https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/about-cdsr
Cost-effectiveness ratioThis calculation estimates the value of additional resources (costs) required to achieve an additional unit of a health outcome.
Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE)The Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) catalog over 35,000 systematic reviews of health and social care interventions and over 17,000 economic evaluations of health and social care interventions up to March 2015 that have been assessed for quality. Guide to searching: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/CRDWeb/GuideToSearching.asp
Detection biasApparent differences between groups not because they differ in an outcome of interest, but because different diagnostic technologies were used in determining who was a case.
Evidence gap map (EGM)Visual and graphic representations of research and systematic reviews on a specific topic, aimed at presenting knowledge synthesis in an interactive and intuitive platform.
Health technology assessmentHealth Technology Assessment (HTA) is an (multidisciplinary) approach to analyzing policy applications of medical technology that has social and economic impact on health care services. Sometimes, the term Health Technology Assessment is used to designate a systematic review that focuses on the health and economic consequences of medical technology – e.g., a gamma knife.
Health Technology Assessment DatabaseThe Health Technology Assessment Database is an international database of completed and in process health technology assessments. It is accessible free of charge via the internet. Website: https://database.inahta.org
IncoherenceIn network meta-analysis, incoherence refers to discrepancies between direct (pairwise) and indirect (through a third) comparisons of entities.
MultidimensionalityUnlike unidimensionality, multidimensionality suggests that a particular construct or variable being measured is not adequately represented by a single underlying dimension or factor but instead comprises multiple distinct dimensions or factors.
Performance biasSystematic differences in care provided apart from the intervention being evaluated. For example, if patients know they are in the control group they may be more likely to use other forms of care, patients who know they are in the experimental (intervention) group may experience placebo effects, and care providers may treat patients differently according to what group they are in. Blinding of study participants (both the recipients and providers of care) is used to protect against performance bias.
PROSPERO PROSPERO is an international repository for systematic reviews that covers a wide variety of subject matters such as public health, social care, education, and more that have health-related outcomes. By providing an open access online database, PROSPERO’s goal is to record and maintain a comprehensive inventory of systematic reviews. Website: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/
Quantity of evidenceIn systematic reviewing, the number of (high-quality) studies available for synthesis
Rapid reviewA method of knowledge synthesis that follows the systematic review process, but the process is accelerated by strategically simplifying or omitting elements to produce information in a timely and resource efficient manner.
ResponsivenessThe ability of an instrument to detect clinically important change over time.
Scoping reviewA method of knowledge synthesis that examines the extent, range, and nature of available research and literature on a specific topic identifying concepts, evidence, and gaps in the research. Scoping reviews are like systematic reviews, but they tend to be exploratory and have a broader scope of inclusion criteria. Conversely, systematic reviews are narrow and involve a formal appraisal of the quality of studies.
Search categoriesTo get better results, bibliographic search results can be narrowed down by specifying a category of requested materials. A category might be defined by the way the information is presented in the database (text, image, video), the information source such as article, book, white paper (grey literature category), news periodical, or information complexity (abstract, paper, meta-analysis, review, book).
Technical efficiencyEfficiency is a term used to indicate optimal use of resources. Technical efficiency assesses which is the best program to meet a specific objective. Compare with allocative efficiency.
True positiveIn diagnostic accuracy studies, a case that is designated positive by both the index test and the reference standard. In other words, a true positive is a term used in binary classification and diagnostic testing to describe a scenario where a positive condition or outcome is correctly identified or detected by a test or model.
Umbrella reviewSynthesis of evidence from multiple systematic reviews on a given topic compiled into one accessible document.
Unidimensionality Unidimensionality refers to the concept that a particular construct or variable being measured can be adequately represented by a single underlying dimension or factor.
Vocabulary termsEntries in a thesaurus or subject index, a terminological control device used in translating from the natural language of documents into a more constrained system language (documentation language, information language).