This report presents a Campbell systematic review on the effectiveness of workplace disability management programs (WPDM programs) promoting return to work (RTW), as implemented and practised by employers. The objectives of this review were to assess the effects of WPDM programs, to examine components or combination of components, which appear more highly related to positive RTW outcomes, and get an understanding of the research area to assess needed research.
Twelve databases were searched for peer-reviewed studies published between 1948 to July 2010 on WPDM programs provided by the employer to re-entering employees with injuries or illnesses (occupational or non-occupational). Screening of articles, risk of bias assessment and data extraction were conducted independently by pairs of review authors.
A total of 16,932 records were identified by the initial search. Of these, 599 papers were assessed for relevance. Thirteen studies (two non-randomized studies (NRS) and eleven single group ?before and after? studies (B & A)), including data from eleven different WPDM programs, met the inclusion criteria. There were insufficient data on the characteristics of the sample and the effect sizes were uncertain. However, narrative descriptions of the included program characteristics were rich, and provide valuable insights into program scope, components, procedures and human resources involved.
There is a lack of evidence to draw unambiguous conclusions on the effectiveness of employer provided WPDM programs promoting RTW. Thus, we could not determine if specific program components or specific sets of components are driving effectiveness.
The review adds to the existing knowledge base on WPDM program development, characteristics and evaluation. At an organizational level intervention, employer provided WPDM programs are multi-component constructs, offering a suite of policies and practices for injured or ill employees. The review identified 15 constituent program components, covering individual, organizational, and system level policies and practices, depicting key human resources involved in workplace program procedures and administration.
The majority of WPDM programs targeted musculoskeletal disorders, during the off-work and pre-return phase of the RTW process. Evidence on WPDM programs targeting mental health conditions and post return/stay at work was scant.
Future program evaluations ought to broaden their focus beyond the first phases of the RTW process and incorporate sustainable outcomes (e.g. job retention, satisfactory and productive job performance, work role functioning, and maintenance of job function).
Given the lack of WPDM programs evaluated in peer-reviewed publications, more attention needs to be given to locate and rigorously evaluate efforts from company studies that may still exist outside the peer reviewed published literature.
While many employers recognize the importance of WPDM and are adopting policies and practices to promote RTW, judging from this review, the existing evidence leaves room for more rigorous methodological studies to develop the present WPDM knowledge base. Prospectively, WPDM evaluation research also needs to enlarge its perspective and refine its analytic tools to examine information that is meaningful and cost effective to those who will benefit from it, to further advance the field.
The review findings might help explicate WPDM programs and their potential impact on RTW outcomes, and provide a more complete understanding of the research in the field of WPDM. This may inspire researchers, employers, and policy makers, who are interested not only in questions regarding the impact of programs, but also their nature, to promote future design and evaluation of DM in organizations.
|Plain Language Summary:
This summary was prepared by Ada Chukwudozie and Howard White (Campbell Collaboration) based on the Campbell Systematic planned out, orderly, regular Review go over, check 2012:17 Workplace Disability Management Programs Promoting Return go back to Work: A Systematic planned out, orderly, regular Review go over, check by Ulrik Gensby, Thomas Lund, Krystyna Kowalski, Madina Saidj, Anne-Marie Klint J?rgensen, Trine Filges, Emma Irvin, Benjamin C. Amick III and Merete Labriola (DOI 10.4073/ csr.2012:17). The summary was redesigned and proofread by Tanya Kristiansen (Campbell Collaboration).
Little conclusive definite, final, last, evidence about the effectiveness of workplace disability management programs in promoting return go back to work
Workplace disability management programs offer a wide array of policies and practices for injured or ill employees. However, there is very scant evidence to draw any definite conclusion on their effectiveness in promoting return go back to work.
What did the review go over, check study?
The share of the working-age population relying on disability and sickness benefits has tended to increase add to, raise in OECD countries, resulting in negative impacts for the individuals concerned, their families, their employer and society more generally. Workplace disability management (WPDM) is a comprehensive complete, covers everything important, thorough, all and cohesive employer based approach to managing complex needs of people with a work disability within a given work environment. all the things around you in your daily life, at home and at work, world around you, your home
This review go over, check assesses the effectiveness of workplace disability management programs in promoting return go back to work. It focuses on successful job maintenance and return go back to work (RTW).
What is the aim of this review?
This Campbell systematic planned out, orderly, regular review go over, check assesses the effectiveness of workplace disability management programs in promoting return go back to work. The review go over, check summarises findings from 13 studies, eight conducted in the USA and five in Canada. Participants were employees on sick leave, from the private and public sectors, with an inability not able to to work due to physical body, bodily, real injury, illness or mental disorders.
What studies are included?
Included studies assess review, sum up, evaluate, to determine figure out, decide, find out, test value, find WPDM interventions implemented within the workplace setting, i.e. onsite-WPDM or RTW-programmes, provided by the employer in collaboration with key players in the workplace, and which address the duration of an inability not able to to work due to physical body, bodily, real injury (musculoskeletal disorder) or mental illness. The studies must have used either randomized controlled trials or non-randomized control manage, have power over, take care of study designs or single group study designs with before and after measures. Studies that included unemployed persons as well as persons with a pre-existing permanent lasting, long term, forever or total impairment were not included.
A total of 13 studies were included in the review go over, check which reported on RTW measured as first return go back to work, reduction in lost days from work and duration of sickness absence measured continuously via time to event data. Secondary outcomes were modification or change of job function and job functioning, as well as sustainability of RTW. Two of the studies included a comparison group; the others conducted before versus after analysis. All the studies were carried out in North America.
What are the main results in this review?
WPDM programmes typically comprise be made up of, include, multiple components, such as early and considerate contact, modified/tailored work schedule plan, planning a time to do something or duties, a revision of workplace roles, education of workplace staff, and rehabilitation activities. Programmes typically involved an inter-disciplinary team of competences from several many corporate located key parties such as: occupational physicians and physiotherapists, occupational therapist/ergonomists, case managers/RTW coordinators, union representatives, supervisors, and managerial HR staff. A RTW policy was used to describe procedures, and stakeholder engagement with roles and responsibilities written into the policy. A joint where bones come together, bone connection labour-management committee may serve as a vehicle car, truck, bus, automobile for developing consensus among key decision makers in the design, implementation and evaluation of each component, and inclusion of senior management may drive corporate support and commitment.
The available on hand, at hand, ready, nearby, handy, ready evidence was not suitable for quantitative synthesis, so no overall conclusion on the effectiveness of WPDM programmes can be made. It cannot be determined if specific program components or specific sets of components are driving effectiveness.
The majority of studies programs focused on musculoskeletal disorders during the off work/pre-return phase of the RTW process. There is little evidence regarding about programmes targeting mental health conditions.
What do the findings in this review go over, check mean?
There is a lack of concrete evidence to draw conclusions on the effectiveness of workplace disability management programs promoting return go back to work.
The findings show that further rigorous hard research is needed. Given that the majority of the studies focused on the first phases of the RTW process, future program evaluations should ensure a broader focus. Future research should also concentrate on identifying the specific program components that taken together, or in different combinations, contributes to safe and timely RTW.
How up-to-date is this review?
The review go over, check authors searched for studies published until July 2010. This Campbell Systematic planned out, orderly, regular Review go over, check was published in July 2012.