||vision, low vision, vision low, visually impaired, vision disorders, sensory aids, orientation and mobility training, rehabilitation, activities of daily living
||Background: Orientation and mobility (O&M) training is provided to people who are visually impaired to help them maintain travel independence. It teaches them new orientation and mobility skills to compensate for reduced visual information.
Objectives: The objective of this review was to assess the effects of (O&M) training, with or without associated devices, for adults with low vision.
Search strategy: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, SIGLE, EMBASE, National Research Register, Zetoc, LILACS, and the reference lists of articles. Updated searches were in 2006.
Selection criteria: We planned to include randomised or quasi-randomised trials comparing (O&M) training with no training in adults with low vision.
Data collection and analysis: Two authors independently assessed the search results for eligibility, evaluated study quality and extracted the data.
Main results: Two small studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. They were consecutive phases of development of the same training curriculum and assessment tool. The intervention was administered by a volunteer on the basis of written and oral instruction. In both studies the randomization technique was inadequate, being based on alternation, and masking was not achieved. Training had no effect in the first study while it was found to be beneficial in the second. Reasons for this may have been: the high scores obtained in the first study, suggestive of little need for training and small room for further improvement (a ceiling effect), and the refinement of the curriculum allowing better tailoring to patients' specific needs and characteristics, in the second study.
Authors' conclusions: The review found two small trials with similar methods, comparing (O&M) training to physical exercise, which were unable to demonstrate a difference. Therefore, there is little evidence on which type of orientation and mobility training is better for people with low vision who have specific characteristics and needs. Orientation and mobility instructors and scientists should plan randomised controlled studies to compare the effectiveness of different types of O&M training. A consensus is needed on the adoption of standard measurement instruments of mobility performance which are proved to be reliable and sensitive to the diverse mobility needs of people with low vision. For this purpose, questionnaires and performance-based tests may represent different tools that explore people with low vision's subjective experience or their objective functioning, respectively.
|Plain Language Summary:
Orientation and mobility ability to move training for people with low vision
Progressive visual impairment often affects people as they age. Training is used to help people with low vision maintain take care of, keep, keep up travel independence, with new orientation and mobility ability to move skills to compensate make up, pay, reward for reduced visual information. information, to learn more Orientation is the ability skill, are able, can to recognise one's position job, rank, class, grade in relation to the environment, whereas while, but mobility ability to move is the ability skill, are able, can to move around safely and efficiently. Orientation and mobility ability to move (O&M) training teaches people to use their remaining vision and other senses to get around. Canes and optical aids may also be used.
We found two small studies with a total of 63 people comparing O&M training delivered by a trained volunteer to physical body, bodily, real exercise. These studies did not show a difference between the two interventions, but they had little power to do so because of the small sample size and poor methodological quality. There were no adverse bad, dangerous, hurtful, harmful effects of O&M training in these studies.
There is little evidence from randomised controlled trials on which type of O&M training is better for people with low vision who have specific characteristics and needs.