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1. Citation: Ownsworth, T., & McKenna, K. (2004). Investigation of factors related to employment outcome following traumatic brain injury: A critical review and conceptual model. Disability and Rehabilitation, 26(13), 765-784.
Keywords: employment outcome, traumatic brain injury, metacognitive skills, vocational rehabilitation, cognitive functioning
Abstract: Background: Evidence-based guidelines for vocational rehabilitation may benefit rehabilitation service providers and individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in determining and planning rehabilitation services. Although numerous research studies have been conducted on employment outcomes for persons with TBI there have been few efforts to synthesize the findings.

Objectives: 1) To demonstrate important variables associated with employment outcomes following TBI; and 2) to develop a conceptual model of factors related to employment outcome.

Search strategy: The authors conducted electronic searches using MEDLINE and PsycINFO, manual searches of key journals, and reference checks of publications. Keywords used in the search included traumatic brain injury, head injury, employment, vocational work and outcome.

Selection criteria: Studies focusing on the measurement of variables related to competitive employment outcomes for people with traumatic brain injury and published between 1980 and December 2003 were included in the review.

Data collection and analysis: Two raters independently evaluated 85 studies for inclusion and methodological quality. Studies rated as “flawed” were excluded from the further analysis.

Main results: 50 studies met the inclusion and methodological quality requirements. The most consistent predictors of employment outcomes were premorbid occupational status, functional status at discharge, global cognitive functioning, perceptual functioning, executive functioning, involvement in vocational rehabilitation services, and emotional status.

Conclusions: The authors present a conceptual model of factors associated with employment outcomes. Further investigation is needed on the role of metacognitive, emotional and social environment factors in improving employment outcomes.
Full-Text Availability Options:The publisher of this journal charges a fee.
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Record Updated:2016-08-04

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